Developing your block

After running the nio newblock command from the blocks/ directory of your project, you are ready to develop your block.

Read more about what nio newblock does here:

Read more about setting up a new project with nio new here:

A good resource for new block development is the nio base block along with other blocks that have functionality similar to the one you would like to develop.

The basic elements of a block that you will define are its properties, commands, and inputs and outputs.

Any required Python dependencies for your block can be added to your requirements.txt file and will be automatically installed when your block is installed.

Other elements of a block to keep in mind include block patterns, the nio framework (including discoverability, and mixins.

Be sure to test and document your block.

Custom blocks can be manually installed for local use in the nio System Designer and submitted to the nio Block Library.

Base block class

All nio Blocks inherit from the base block class. The first import in the block template's is nio.block.base. If you explore the code inside nio.block.base, you'll find explanatory docstrings for each method—including methods to override in your custom block—along with higher-level context.

An important principle to remember when developing your block is that signals are passed as lists.

Methods to override

The following methods from the base block are designed to be overridden:

life cycle management

  • configure: at the end of the configure method, the block is ready to receive signals. If an exception is raised during configure, the service will not start.
  • start: during start, a block begins to send out signals. This method needs to eventually return so that the block status can change to “started". For this reason, anything that runs continuously, should be run in a new thread.
  • stop: after stop, the block stops sending out signals and cancels jobs.


  • process_signals(<list of signals>, input_id): receives incoming signals.
  • notify_signals(<list of signals>, output_id): emits signals from the block. This method isn't intended to be overridden, but should be called by the block to send out signals. For example, you will usually call notify_signals at the end of your process_signals method.

Current nio blocks

An additional resource for developing your custom block is the nio Block Library. Search the nio Block Library for a block that has similar functionality to the block you need. Open the link to its code and explore its properties, methods, commands, inputs, outputs, mixins, and any modules imported from the framework.


Block properties are declared as class attributes and have a property type. For example, to declare a configurable speed property as an IntProperty type.

speed = IntProperty(title='Speed', default=30)

And in the FileReader block type a file property is declared with a FileProperty type.

file = FileProperty(title='File', default='/tmp/file.txt')

To obtain the value of a block property, call the property with a function invocation. For example, you can get the value of the speed property defined above with:


If you want to use the $ syntax to refer to your signal, pass in signal when you call the property. The FileReader block accesses the value of the file property with

 file = self.file(signal).value

[info] Reserved block property names

Within nio, the following block property names

  • name
  • type
  • log_level
  • version

are reserved and should not be used while creating blocks.

Property types

Block properties can include the following types:

  • BoolProperty
    One of two mutually exclusive options.

  • StringProperty
    A valid Python string.

  • IntProperty
    A Python integer.

  • FloatProperty
    A Python float.

  • FileProperty
    A file stream.

  • ListProperty
    List properties hold a list of object types which contain properties themselves or can be nio types such as IntType.

  • ObjectProperty
    Object types contain properties themselves.

  • SelectProperty
    Select properties enumerate a list of options.

  • TimeDeltaProperty
    A duration property expressing the difference between two date, time, or datetime instances.

  • VersionProperty
    A version property with the format (

  • Property
    A property that can assume any type.


Commands are declared as decorators.

  from nio.block.base import Block
  from nio.command import command

  class MyBlock(Block):
    # properties and block methods here…

    # emit method that will be invoked when the "emit" command is received
    def emit(self, foo=None):
          self._emit_job(foo) # where you have set up your own _emit_job method…

Inputs and outputs

Inputs and outputs are declared as decorators.

  from nio.block.base import Block
  from nio.block import output

  @output('false', label='False')
  @output('true', label='True')
  class MyBlock(Block):
    # properties and block methods here…

    def process_signals(self, signals):
      true_result, false_result = self._filter_signals(signals) # where you have set up your own _filter_signals method…

      # add any other functionality to process_signals

      self.notify_signals(true_result, 'true')
      self.notify_signals(false_result, 'false')

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